My spine still shivers when I remember the nuclear stand-off between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1962. As a nine-year-old I felt helpless in the face of two leaders poised to push the button.
It was MAD – mutually assured destruction – but sanity prevailed and by the end of the 1960s we had détente.
Yes, there are disappointments – the internet, for example, has not raised the calibre of conversation but instead has created echo chambers of bigotry and forums for lies and harassment.
While AI has been in backroom development since the 1950s and increasingly implemented by businesses and government in the past few years, I believe 2018 will go down as the year the AI future arrived.
我很清楚以前令人印象深刻的发展，例如AIAlphaGo击败世界冠军，但我不打球。但是，我确实依靠我的执行助理。因此，今年Google公开展示了digital assistant named双工calling a hairdressing salon to make an appointment for its boss, speaking in a mellow female voice filled with human pauses and colloquialisms, I knew AI had arrived.
不久之后，IBM演示了Project Debater争论一个无脚本的话题与熟练的人。听众中有些人判断Project Debater赢家。
Also like humans, when it comes to AI there are the good, the bad and the ugly.
The good: digital assistants,医疗AI诊断癌症, satellite navigation that figures out the best way home and systems that somehow know that your credit card has been used fraudulently.
The bad: biases such as that discovered in the COMPAS risk-assessment software used to help judges in the US determine a sentence by forecasting the likelihood of a defendant reoffending. After two years of evaluation COMPAS was found to have overestimated re-offence rates for black defendants and underestimated re-offence rates for white defendants. Every human I know is biased, so why worry when an AI is biased? Because there is a good chance it will be replicated and sold by the millions, thus spreading the bias across the planet.
So how can we utilise the good but avoid the bad and the ugly? We must actively manage the integration of AI into our human society like we have done with electricity, cars and medicines. Australia can lead the way, as we did for IVF by becoming the first country to collate and report on birth outcomes and the first to publish national ethics guidelines. To capture the benefits and avoid the pitfalls requires a public discussion. In July the Australian Human Rights Commission launcheda projecton human rights and digital technology. In my keynote speech I finished with the question: “What kind of society do we want to be?”
其次,采用提出的“黄金法则”ad of Australia’s Department of Home Affairs,迈克尔·皮兹洛（Michael Pezzullo）：没有人不得被计算机而不是负责人剥夺其基本权利，特权或权利。
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